Volume 6 Issue 1

Historical Identity Development Patterns and Contemporary Multicultural Identity in First, Second and Third Generation Counseling Students

By Nola Butler Byrd, San Diego State University


This study examines the historical and contemporary identity development patterns of first, second, and third generation students to determine the attributes students bring with them and how they develop through their experiences in a multicultural counselor training program. The paper examines patterns between groups, followed by a discussion of implications and recommendations for multicultural counseling and education.

Undocumented Immigrants: A Teacher Remembers a Raid

By Darrel Hoagland

It was so cold on that day in March 2007, even native New Englanders were complaining about the freezing temperatures. In our classroom, near the end of the school day, the principal addressed the students on the public address system saying, “Students, if you go home and your parents are not there, and you can’t get in, come back to school.” That was all he said, and, even though I thought his comment odd, I assumed it was precipitated by the frigid New England temperatures and let his comment slip out of mind. School ended and I went home. Later that day while driving down Rodney French Boulevard, traffic was exceptionally slow and two or three white school buses passed me going in the opposite direction.

A Brief History of Bilingual Education in the United States

By David Nieto, University of Massachusetts Boston


In the history of the United States of America, multilingual communities have subsisted side by side. Among the many languages spoken throughout the country, we could mention first all the original Native American languages and then a multitude of languages that immigrants from all over the world have brought into the country. Together with English, Italian, German, Dutch, Polish, French, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese are just some of the more than two hundred languages that have been spoken in the United States. As James Crawford (2004) has noted, “Language diversity in North America has ebbed and flowed, reaching its lowest level in the mid-20th century. But it has existed in every era, since long before the United States constituted itself as a nation” (p. 59).

Pathways to Social Justice: Urban Teachers' Uses of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy as a Conduit for Teaching for Social Justice

By Jennifer Esposito and Ayanna N. Swain, Georgia State University


This article explores issues surrounding teaching for social justice in urban schools. Using qualitative methods, our study examined the ways in which seven urban teachers used culturally relevant pedagogy as a mechanism for teaching for social justice. We found that by adhering to the tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy (e.g. personal accountability and cultural critique), our participants helped their students think critically about how social injustices affected their lives. The implications of our findings suggest that while the constraints inherent in urban schools perpetuate the injustices of social reproduction, the implementation of culturally relevant and social justice pedagogies help prepare students to effect change in their communities and the broader society.

Feminist Ethnography in Education and the Challenges of Conducting Fieldwork: Critically Examining Reciprocity and Relationships between Academic and Public Interests


This paper presents a critical analysis of ideas and formulations traditionally organized under the broad theoretical umbrella identified as feminist “critical ethnography.” Various authors have proposed critical ethnography as a way to respond to the crisis of representation posed by post-structuralism. In particular, many authors have problematized the unequal relations established between researchers and research participants in the field.